Методические указания по развитию навыков устной речи для студентов I




НазваниеМетодические указания по развитию навыков устной речи для студентов I
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Н В Кавтрова
Дата конвертации12.03.2013
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ТипМетодические указания
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ФГОУ ВПО

«ПРИМОРСКАЯ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННАЯ

СЕЛЬСКОХОЗЯЙСТВЕННАЯ АКАДЕМИЯ»

ИНСТИТУТ ГУМАНИТАРНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

Кафедра иностранных языков

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

Методические указания

по развитию навыков устной речи

для студентов I курса

Института лесного и лесопаркового хозяйства

Часть II

Уссурийск 2010

Составитель: Н.В. Кавтрова, старший преподаватель кафедры

иностранных языков ФГОУ ВПО «ПГСХА».

Английский язык: методические указания по развитию навыков устной речи для студентов I курса Института лесного и лесопаркового хозяйства. Часть II/ сост. Н.В. Кавтрова; ФГОУ ВПО ПГСХА. – Уссурийск, 2010.- 60с.


Рецензент: Т.И. Скрипникова, кандидат педагогических наук, доцент УГПИ.

Печатается по решению методического совета

Приморской государственной сельскохозяйственной академии.
UNIT 1.
Topic: Structure and Kinds of trees.

Grammar: Prepositions, Participle II, Passive voice.
Part I.

Vocabulary

1. Give the correct pronunciation of the following words, if necessary consult a dictionary.
Conduct, needles, sawngoods, branch, temperate, plant, strength, cause, breathe, breathing, leaf, leaves, root, bark, annual, gravity, specific, species, outer, coarse, covering, vary, weight, conifers, deciduous.
2. Words and word combinations to be remembered.

shrub – кустарник

plant – растение

remarkable – выдающийся

woody – лесистый

stem – ствол

root – корень

crown – крона

to breathe – дышать

breathing – дыхание

leaf (leaves) – лист/листья

bark – кора

branch – ветвь

temperate – умеренный

rapid – быстрый

to cause – вызывать

annual ring – годовой слой (в древесине)

to conduct – проводить, пропускать (воду, воздух)

strength – сила, крепость

specific gravity – удельный вес

dense – плотный, прочный

softwoods (conifers) – хвойные породы

hardwoods (deciduous trees) – лиственные породы

needles – иголки, хвоя

soft sawngoods – пиломатериалы хвойных пород

***

species of trees and shrubs – породы деревьев и кустарников

members of the plant world – представители растительного мира

the outer covering – внешнее покрытие

to count the age of a tree – подсчитывать возраст дерева

the heavy flow of sap – обильный поток сока

coarse open grain – древесина с грубой текстурой

to vary in weight – отличаться по весу

to be divided into groups – делиться на группы

to look like – выглядеть как, походить на, быть похожим на

due to the high physical and mechanical properties – вследствие высоких физических и механических нагрузок

to shed leaves – сбрасывать листву
Grammar Study

3. Do the following tasks:
a) Learn the following prepositions:

1. since – с тех пор как, так как, хотя

2. above – над, свыше, выше

3. according to – в соответствии с, согласно

4. through – через, сквозь, по

5. due to – благодаря

6. in spite of – несмотря на

7. besides – кроме

8. beside – рядом с, около, по сравнению

9. between – между

10. by means of – посредством

11. during – в течение

12. among – среди, между

13. behind – позади, за, после

14. round – вокруг, по

15. over – над, через, свыше
b) Translate the sentences paying attention to the underlined propositions.

1. Some other students besides Peter will go there.

2. She walked round the garden.

3. The house was beside the forest.

4. The growth of trees occurs by means of cell division.

5. In the temperate zone trees grow actively during the warmer months.

6. Some plants grow best in cool climate due to higher supply of water.

7. Every student knows the difference between the species.

8. Man’s wants have greatly changed since the beginning of the century.

9. I like to roam through the forest.

10. According to the programme we learn a lot of special subjects.

11. In spite of bad weather we went to the country.
4. Choose the suitable attributes (B) to the nouns (A). Give as many word combinations as you can.
A. Trees, forest, bushes, root, stem, crown, poplar, pine, plant, world, branch, twig, wood, species, leaves, zone.

B. Green, evergreen, coniferous, deciduous, deep, tall, uneven, spring, autumn, summer, winter, single, woody, plant, long, short, small, wide, narrow, temperate.
5. Change the following statements according to the model:

Model: A forest which is planted. – A planted forest.

  1. The air which is polluted.

  2. A tree which is pruned.

  3. Shrubs which were transplanted.

  4. Species which are known.

  5. Bushes which are grown.

  6. A cedar which is cut.

  7. Cones which are harvested.


6. Translate the following word combinations, paying attention to Participle II.
1. The part covered with ...

2. The tree planted in the yard ...

3. The shrubs grown ...

4. Sawngoods known ...

5. The breathing done ...

6. The annual rings caused ...
7. Transform the sentences according to the model and translate them. Pay attention to the Passive Voice.


  1. Model: They show me the house he lives in. – I am shown the house he lives in.


1. They give him some instructions.

2. He sent them some books last week.

3. They ask us our names at the hotel.

4. They offer him the job.

5. A friend of mine tells me the news every morning.

B. Model: They built this bridge last year. – The bridge was built last year.

1. I left the dog in the garden.

2. They planted these birches two years ago.

3. The teacher asked the student a very difficult question.

4. She showed the visitors the works of the students.

5. They used this wood for making furniture.

6. They harvested cones in autumn.
D. Model: I shall post the letter tomorrow. – The letter will be posted by me.

1. The students will learn a lot of new English words.

2. She will bring the book to the library in two days.

3. They will do the experiment at the laboratory.

4. This team will play football tomorrow.

5. They will show me some old trees.
8. Answer the questions according to the given models:
А. Model: Where are all these magazine sent to? (abroad) – They are sent abroad.
1. Where is English spoken? (all over the world)

2. When are examination papers written? (at the end of each term)

3. When are examinations taken? (in January and in June)

4. Where are shrubs grown? (in the garden)

5. Where are soft sawngoods used? (in some branches of industry)

6. Where are the larches planted? (in the park)

7. When are the seeds collected? (in autumn)

8. When are the plants transplanted? (in spring)
B. Model: Did you send for the doctor? – Yes, the doctor was sent for.

1. Did you refer to his book in your article?

2. Did the children listen to his stories?

3. Did he take care of these trees?

4. Did they talk about new species?

5. Did you object to their proposal?

6. Did she laugh at him?

7. Did he rely on this information?

8. Did they arrive to a definite conclusion?

9. Did they agree upon the time of their meeting?

10. Did they look into matter?
9. Make the sentences affirmative and interrogative in Passive.
Model: I wrote the letter yesterday.

The letter was written by me yesterday.

Was the letter written by me yesterday?

1. I read the book last week.

2. The engineers discussed the problem for a long time.

3. He makes many experiments.

4. The students submitted his project a few days ago.

5. We attend scientific conferences.

6. The variation between spring and summer wood causes the annual rings.

7. They divided trees into two main groups.

8. They planted fir saplings a week ago.
10. Read the joke paying attention to the use of Passive Voice.
TOO BIG TO BE LOST.

The teacher was given her class of young pupils a test on natural history. “Now, Bobby,” she said, “tell me where elephant can be found”. The boy thought for a moment, then his face brightened. “The elephant,” he said, “is such a large animal that it can’t be lost”.
Word Study

11. A. Find the antonyms in the column B for the column A.
A B

1. softwood 1. at the end

2. active 2. slow

3. warm 3. small

4. to stop 4. inactive

5. at the beginning 5. cold

6. rapid 6. low

7. high 7. to begin

8. large 8. hardwood
B. Find the synonyms in the column B for the column A.
A B

1. trunk 1. fall

2. kind 2. fast

3. softwood 3. stem

4. hardwood 4. notable

5. autumn 5. coniferous

6. remarkable 6. deciduous

7. strength 7. maybe

8. rapid 8. force

9. perhaps 9. species
12. Make up English-Russian pairs:


  1. woody 1. крона

  2. stem 2. хвоя

  3. bark 3. плотный

  4. needles 4. корень

  5. temperate 5. умеренный

  6. annual ring 6. удельный вес

  7. crown 7. кора

  8. root 8. хвойные породы

  9. to conduct 9. дышать

  10. dense 10. листв. породы

  11. specific gravity 11. годовое кольцо

  12. softwoods 12. древесный

  13. hardwoods 13. проводить

  14. to breathe 14. ствол



13. Group the following species into softwoods and hardwoods:
Pine, oak, lime, maple, cedar, poplar, fir, ash, aspen, larch, willow, birch, spruce, beech, alder.
14. Read and translate the text.
Text A. Structure and Kinds of Trees.
More than 1500 species of trees and shrubs grow on the territory of our country. Of all the world’s plants trees are perhaps the most remarkable. Trees are woody plants growing usually with a single stem. They are the largest members of the plant world.

Trees consist of 3 main parts: the root, the stem, the crown. The part of a tree which is in the soil is a root, the part coming up from the root is the trunk and the part covered with leaves is the crown.

Like all other plants and like animals trees breathe. The breathing is done through the leaves and the bark. The bark is the outer covering of the trunk and the branches.

In the temperate zone trees grow actively during the warmer months and stop growing during the cold months. At the beginning of the growing season the growth is rapid and slows down to autumn. The variation between spring and summer wood causes the annual rings by which we may count the age of a tree. The spring wood must conduct the heavy flow of sap and has coarse open grain while the summer wood is dense and darker with more strength. Wood varies in weight and specific gravity.

Trees are divided into 2 main groups: soft wood trees and hard wood trees. Conifers have been preferred to broad-leaved trees as they are much quicker in yielding crops. Coniferous species such as pine, cedar, spruce, larch and fir dominate in our forests. They are evergreen trees. Their leaves look like needles. Only larch like all deciduous trees sheds its needles every autumn. Soft sawngoods are used in some branches of industry due to the high physical and mechanical properties of wood.

Hard species are oak, birch, beech, lime, maple, willow, aspen, ash, poplar. All these trees have broad leaves and shed them every autumn. The oak and the beech are the most valuable among the deciduous trees.
Text Study
15. Here are some sentences with the words in the wrong order. Put them in the right order:
1. Grow on the territory of our country trees and shrubs more than 1500 species of.

2. Through the leaves and the bark is done the breathing.

3. Between spring and autumn wood the annual rings the variation causes.

4. The heavy flow of sap must the spring wood conduct.

5. With more strength the summer wood darker and is dense.

6. Into two main groups divided are the kinds of trees.

7. Are used soft sawngoods to high physical and due mechanical properties?

8. Hard species broad leaves have and autumn every them shed.

9. The most valuable the deciduous trees among are the oak and the beech.
16. Make up connected sentences with the following words and word combinations.
the crown, trees, the root, to be in the soil, the part of a tree, covered (with), the stem, the branches, to be the outer covering (of), the bark, the trunk, to consist of, coming up (from), which.
17. Answer the questions on the text.
1. How many species of trees and shrubs grow on the territory of our country?

2. What plants are trees?

3. What parts do trees consist of?

4. What is the root (the trunk, the crown, the bark)?

5. How is the breathing of trees done?

6. How do trees grow in the temperate zone?

7. What causes the annual rings of trees?

8. What can you say about the spring wood (the summer wood)?

9. What does wood vary in?

10. What groups are the kinds of trees divided into?

11. Why have conifers been preferred to deciduous trees?

12. What conifers (hardwoods) do you know?

12. What species are the most valuable among the deciduous trees?
18. Give English equivalents.
1. В нашей стране произрастает более 1500 пород деревьев и кустарников.

2. Деревья являются крупнейшими представителями растительного мира.

3. Деревья состоят из 3-х основных частей: корня, ствола, кроны.

4. Кора – это внешнее покрытие ствола и ветвей.

5. Деревья дышат через листья и кору.

6. Рост деревьев замедляется к осени.

7. Мы можем посчитать возраст дерева по годичным кольцам.

8. Существуют две основные группы деревьев: хвойные и лиственные.

9. В наших лесах преобладают хвойные породы.

10. Среди лиственных пород самыми ценными являются дуб и бук.
19. Speak on the following topics:


  1. the structure of a tree

  2. kinds of trees


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