Формирование социально значимых качеств личности старшеклассника и социокультурной компетенции при изучении страноведческого материала (сша)




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НазваниеФормирование социально значимых качеств личности старшеклассника и социокультурной компетенции при изучении страноведческого материала (сша)
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8. House and Home

Some sentences have been removed from the text. While reading, complete it. One of the sentences is extra.

The lives of most Americans revolve around their homes and houses. The percentage of people owning the houses ( and apartments) they live in is one of the highest among western nations.(1…) Contrary to a common belief, only about 5 % of all Americans live in mobile homes.

Most of America has a more or less four- season climate, and the rhythms of life around the house tend to follow the seasons. There is always something that needs to be done around the house, and most American homeowners do it themselves.

Shopping , that is, the big food shopping, is usually done once a week at the local supermarket. One advantage of a service- oriented economy is that many businesses, with employees working in shifts, stay open late to provide services and possibilities for shopping. Most Americans, like most people everywhere, are always trying to keep their budgets under control, and always going over.

(2…) They are assigned “ chores” which might include, for instance, vacuuming the rugs, washing and waxing the floors, cleaning windows, mowing the lawn, shoveling snow, keeping the car(s) clean, looking after the pets, and so on.

(3…) This might be working at the local supermarket or service station , mowing lawns, delivering newspapers, or baby- sitting. In fact, about 70 % of high school seniors work during the average school week. One effect on American society is that middle- class children can do mental work without losing face. Sometimes , in fact, it’s a way of gaining status. Americans feel that young people should appreciate the value of work and learn how to stand on their own two feet.(4…)

The image that American teenagers “get whatever they want” from their parents comes from a time when the standard of living was much higher in the USA than it was elsewhere. Many high school students have their own cars. But most of them were paid for by the students themselves( along with the necessary automobile insurance which, by the way, is particularly expensive for teenagers).

(5…) This varies in time according to family traditions and depending upon each member’s schedule. It’s usually the only time of the day when everyone is home. If parents work, all are off to school or work in the morning. Most Americans drive to work, and most children walk to school or take public transportation. Those yellow school buses serve primarily rural areas and schools with children from widely scattered areas.

(6….) At the end of the 20 th century 30% of all employed Americans put in a work week of less than 40 hours. About 40% of all companies offered “flextime” or “ job sharing”. About 60% of all women between the ages of 20 and 44 were working. The availability of child- care centers and the fact that children attend school until three or four in the afternoon and eat lunch there has helped many women with children to take jobs outside the home.

In the average American home there is an enormous amount of activity of coming and going, seemingly all happening at once.( 7…) The social life is often hectic as well. One child is off to the party, another to the library, another to see a film. Neighbors drop by, and the telephone keeps ringing. Messages remind one family member to do this or that. (8…)


  1. Most Americans don’t associate a public display of patriotism with totalitarian systems.

  2. A lot of Americans still live in “ single- family dwellings”, that is houses which usually have a front and backyard.

  3. Many adults and teenagers are involved in volunteer work.

  4. American children are expected to help around the house.

  5. Many American children take piano or other music lessons and just about anything else that parents think will be good for their children.

  6. Middle class families expect their children to find part-time jobs.

  7. The common meal of the day is eaten in the evening.

  8. Most Americans today work eight hours a day, five days a week at their jobs.

  9. Most parents expect their children to leave home at an earlier age than do parents in many other western countries.

9. Lifestyles

Read the text and insert the missing words

American informality recalls not only the frontier a)___, but also the heritage of immigration. Thrown together in a new world, most immigrants watched the familiar societal distinctions of the old world become blurred. The Revolution had abolished titles of b)___. As a result, there was never a hereditary aristocracy in the USA. A centuries-old class system in which people, high and low, “ knew their place” was essentially dead. Throughout the 18 th and 19th centuries, the differences between the new world and the old were considerable.

Immigration, the Revolution, and the frontier experience broke down many traditional class c)__. As a result, Americans have always felt less constrained and more d)__ in their social and professional lives. In other words, they have had over two centuries to forget that “ you should only speak when spoken to”.

The habit of informality, the ease with which Americans speak to people they’ve only casually met, still surprises foreign visitors. Among Americans of roughly the same age group and social status, e)__ are easily and quickly exchanged. The German or French visitor, however, who interprets this as meaning an instant du or tu relationship is making a basic mistake. This is assuming the Americans follow German or French sociolinguistic rules. Likewise, when an American says” if you’re ever in Chicago, stop by and see us”, he doesn’t expect the foreign visitor to take it literally and will not be f)__ to see him, unannounced, appear on his doorstep. Similarly, the customary “ bread- and – butter “ or “ thank you” letter sent to a host is an important and polite gesture.

There are generally established and g)__ rules which parallel this informality. There are topics – income, religion, politics, for example- that many Americans feel are best avoided in casual conversation. Those who insist upon formal address or titles – in general, those who take themselves too h)__ are sometimes thought to be “ phoney” or pretentious. Not surprisingly, such people are often targets for humor.

Reading comprehension exercises

1 Choose the most appropriate answer to the questions:

Which do three American “ national characteristics” recall ?

A things , typical of the nation

B American ways of life and attitudes

C individual differences

D frontier experience
How should the casual friendliness of many Americans be interpreted ?

A as superficial

B as artificial

C as a historically developed cultural tradition
What is being friendly for Americans ?

A courteous convention

B individual interest

C virtue
What does to be polite mean in the USA ?

A not to say anything at all

B try to be honest to tell the truth

C tell what people want to hear

2 Match the parts of the sentences:

  1. Neighborliness

  2. Such casual coming and going, borrowing and lending, offering and receiving of help among neighbors

  3. Today many people seem to be looking once more for

  4. In a land where people move frequently and freely, socially as well as geographically,

  5. Even where there are no physical barriers,

  6. One is

  7. The other is to keep

  8. The line drawn is fine

a is typical of most Americans

b they have become adept at making new acquaintances and forming new friendships

c to be friendly to your neighbor

d it’s there, even when you can’t see it

e your nose out of his or her business

f the mental barriers are well- understood and respected

g a way of life symbolized by the small town

h has also been traced to the long period of settlement

3 After you have read a lot about the country, make up a plan to summarize the information.

  1. Which facts from the life of the USA mentioned above can be applied to Russia?

  2. How different or alike do you think Americans and Russians are?

  3. What other examples of the Russian way of life would you give to an American to let him or her better understand the Russians?

Keys to the exercises:

The Boston Tea Party

1 T 2 F 3T 4T 5 F 6 T

The American Revolution

1b 2d 3b 4b 5c

Brother Against Brother

1

1 seceded 2 cemetery 3 ammunition 4 glory 5 bound to 6 survived 7 spectacular 8 captured

2

1d 2 h 3 g 4 f 5 b 6 a 7 e 8 c

American People – “ A Nation of Nations”

  1. h 2b 3 g 4 d 5 f 6 e 7 c

The Melting Pot

1 b 2 c 3 b 4 b 5 d

American character

Task 1

1 F 2 A 3 D 4 C 5 E 6 B

Task 2

1 C 2 F 3 G 4 E 5 D 6 B

Task 3

1 diversity 2 variety 3 largest 4 vast 5 extremes 6 sunbathe 7 drop 8 population 9 living 10 granted 11 mutual 12 American 13 differences

Task 4

1 spending 2 best 3 appliances 4 millionaires 5 spenders 6 underclass 7 hopelessness 8 payments 9 housing 10 themselves

Task 5

1 too 2 v 3 v 4 the 5 by 6 a 7 perhaps 8 up 9 v 10 to 11 not 12 have 13 v 14 did 15 v

American Food

  1. c 2 c 3 c 4 a 5 a

American Dinner Manners

  1. c 2 c 3 a, b 4 b 5 b 6 b 7 b 8 c 9 c 10 c

House and home

1- 2; 2-4; 3-6; 4-9; 5-7; 6-8; 7-5; 8-3;

Lifestyles

  1. experience b) nobility c) barriers d) informal e) first names f) pleased g) understood h) seriously

Keys to the reading comprehension exercises

Ex 1

1 d 2 c 3 c 4 a

Ex 2

1 h 2 a 3 g 4 b 5 f 6 c 7 e 8

ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ № 2

I.

Exercises for teaching politically correct English.

WARM – UP ACTIVITY

  1. Ask your students to identify that people are especially sensitive to ( they may name gender, age, ethnicity or nationality, religion, physical appearance).

  2. Show your students pictures of different people and ask them what these people are sensitive to, what language strategies they can use to avoid offending these people. Present examples and suggestions on the board. Identify patterns, e. g. , dropping –ess from authoress, manageress, actress, replacing –man/men with person/ people.

Task 1

The following phrases use sexist language. Rewrite them to make them inclusive

  1. A teacher should be tolerant with his students.

  2. A child needs the love of his parents.

  3. An actress is usually nervous before the show.

  4. Mary is a camerawoman.

  5. The committee elected a chairman.

  6. Man is destroying our planet.

  7. Today man- made fibers are used for manufacturing stockings.

  8. This substance is not known to man.


Task 2

Although well known, the following proverbs are no politically correct. Try to change them.

1. Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise.

2. He who cannot obey cannot command.

3. A man’s home is his castle.

4. Every man has his hobbyhorse.

5. He is happy that thinks himself to.

Task 3

Column A represents traditional names for different races and nationalities, and column B

gives the politically correct version. Match the names from column A with column B.

A B

1. Oriental a. Native Australians

2. Colored b. Native Hawaiians

3. Australian Aborigines c. Asian

4. Torres Strait Islanders d. Caucasians

5. Whites e. African Americans

Task 4

Many people are sensitive about their abilities, age, culture, appearance. Make the following phrases sound inoffensive to the persons being spoken about.

  1. She is looking after her insane mother.

  2. The program offers long- term care for the elderly and immediate care for the mentally retarded.

  3. A new clinic for the care of geriatrics is being proposed.

  4. He is as blind as a bat.

  5. My neighbor is as deaf as a post.

  6. Jane is an emotional cripple.

  7. Fat people need to go on diets.


II.
На втором этапе работы можно предложить проработать рекомендации из брошюры для выезжающих в США “ Going to the USA? – Remember.”

  • Make space! Always maintain enough distance between you and someone you are talking to, even a friend! Personal body space is very important to Americans!

  • It is NOT usually acceptable to call someone before 9 am or after 10 pm.

  • Never ask for someone’ s personal information such as age or salary details . It is considered very rude!

  • Don’t cut ahead in a line . “ Cutters” are not tolerated!

  • Yawning or sneezing without covering your mouth or burping are considered very gross! Americans have very high hygiene standards.

  • Unexpected visits aren’t really ” the done thing” in America! Telephone beforehand.

  • Remember to knock before entering a room.

  • Maintain eye contact when speaking to someone. Not looking someone in the eye can be taken as a sign of dishonesty.

  • Always try to be on time. Punctuality is extremely important for Americans.

  • Never forget to say “ please” and “ thank you”. Not doing so means that you have bad manners.

  • Names: it’s often OK for young people to call adults by their first names. It is not considered impolite or disrespectful. Rather, it is taken as a sign of equality , a highly valued American ideal!

  • Eating before others are ready to begin, is considered very impolite.

  • Remember always to tip waiters, doormen, taxi drivers, hairdressers. It’s a highly important social convention in the USA!

  • Switch off your mobile phone when at the movies or at a restaurant with others.

Затем целесообразно предложить обучающимся попрактиковаться в разыгрывании сценок и составлении мини диалогов по следующим темам:

« Приветствия », «Знакомство», « В аэропорту», « Прохождение таможенного контроля», « На дне рождения», « На вечеринке» и т.д.

III.

How tolerant are you?

  1. You think you’ ve got an interesting idea, but it wasn’t supported. Are you disappointed?

  1. Yes b) no

  1. You are spending the time with friends and somebody suggests playing a game. What would you prefer?

  1. Let play the people who are good at

  2. Let play everybody even those who don’t know the rules

  1. Do you perceive unpleasant news calmly?

  1. Yes b) no

  1. Do drunk people in public places irritate you ?

  1. If they don’t violate the rules, I don’t care at all

  2. People who can’t control their behavior have always been annoying

  1. Can you easily get into contact with representatives of other professions, age , social status, customs?

  1. It would be difficult

  2. I don’t pay attention to such things

  1. How do you react on a joke about you?

  1. I don’t like either jokes or jokers

  2. If I don’t like the joke, I’ll respond in the same way

  1. Do you agree with the statement that many people don’t suit the positions they get and the business isn’t theirs

  1. Yes b) no

  1. You take along a friend of yours into the company and he\ she draws much attention to himself \ herself. How would you react?

  1. You are dissatisfied that attention is paid not to you

  2. You are happy for your friend

  1. You meet an elderly person who criticizes contemporary young generation and worships gone days. What would you do?

  1. Would leave under pretence

  2. Would join the argument
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