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For points 1-10read the text. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line
Americans are known for their easy way of 1__ money. Abroad, they often SPEND
stay in the 2____ hotels and go to the most expensive stores. An ordinary GOOD
American house has two bathrooms, a separate room for each child, a garage
and several TV sets. Kitchens are full of expensive electrical 3__ APPLY
Americans respect people who have become 4___ They enjoy watching MILLION
TV programs and reading about the super – rich, the big 5___ SPEND
In recent years, however, more and more people have become trapped in an
6__. These people seem to be unable to escape from bad housing , unemployment CLASS
and a life of crime and 7___. Politicians cannot decide on how to improve HOPE
the situation. Some ask for more 8__ for the poor, for better medical help, more PAY
free food, for better 9___.Others feel that the poor will only learn to help HOUSE
10__ if they receive no help at all from others. THEY
Read the text and look carefully at each line. Some of the lines are correct, some have a word which should not be there. If a line is correct, put a tick (V). if a line has a word which should not be there, write the word out .
_V__ 0 What’s your idea of a typical American teenager ?
_the__00 Typical American teenagers are in the fact very ordinary.
______1 They think their teachers make them work too very
________2 hard, they love their parents, but are sure they don’t
________3 understand anything, and their friendship is the most
________4 important thing in the their lives. Some of them do have a lot of
________5 money to spend, but usually they have earned it by themselves.
________6 Most young people take jobs while they are in a school. Maybe
_______ 7 perhaps this is what makes them so independent from their
________8 parents at such a young age. It isn’t always easy to keep up
________9 a job , and still do well at school. But American children
_______ 10 learn early that you to have to work hard to win. America doesn’t
_______ 11 not belong to young people anymore, in the way it did only
_______ 12 twenty years ago. Young people today have to have fight harder
______ 13 to get the kinds of jobs and homes they want. Maybe that is why
_______ 14 young Americans are more serious now than they did used
_______ 15 to be. They have less time for fun and sun these days.
Now it’s all work, work, work….
6. American Holidays
After you have read the text, compare how Americans and the Russians celebrate the holiday. Find similarities and differences
“ Ring out the old, ring in the new,” wrote Alfred Lord Tennyson, the 19 th –century English poet. And that’s exactly what Americans do every December 31. New Year’s Eve is a time for merriment. At midnight bells ring, horns blow, and friends exchange kisses. Everyone stays up late to celebrate the arrival of another year.
At home or in restaurants most Americans spend the final hours of the old year and the first hours of the new year drinking and dining with friends. One popular New Year’s Eve drink is eggnog, a thick, yellow concoction made with eggs, milk or cream, and sugar. Champagne- the drink that traditionally symbolized a celebration- is often served for the midnight toast on New Year’s Eve.
One of the noisiest and most crowded of New Year’s Eve celebrations takes place in New York city at Times Square. Thousands of New Yorkers gather there, and millions of Americans across the country join them via TV.
After the new year officially arrives, most partygoers enjoy a hearty snack. New Year’s Eve festivities often continue until two or three o’clock in the morning. Many people travel from one party to another to celebrate with several different groups of friends.
Following a long, hectic New Year’s Eve, Americans spend a quiet, leisurely New Year’s Day. In most households everyone sleeps late, often enjoys brunch and TV with the family and friends. Two famous New Year’s Day festivals are televised for national viewing: the Tournament of Roses and the Mummer’s Parade. Both of these events have been American traditions for more than half a century.
The Mummer’s Parade, which takes place in Philadelphia, is a ten- hour spectacle. It was introduced in the US by Swedish immigrants. The Parade is colorful and highspirited. The men dress in lavish costumes. Some impersonate women since no women are allowed to participate. There are clowns, musicians, dancers, and floats- all lead by King Momus dressed in gleaming satin.
The Tournament of Roses takes place in Pasadena, California. Elaborate floats displaying roses and thousands of other California flowers depict a different theme each year. Prizes are awarded to the cities with the most unusual and attractive floral displays. After the parade, the Rose Bowl football game, a contest between two top-ranking college football teams, is played.
New Year’s Day has traditionally been the occasion for starting new programs and giving up bad habits. People talk about “ turning over a new leaf.” Many Americans make New Year’s resolutions, promising themselves and their families to improve their behavior. Typical resolutions are to spend less money, give up smoking, keep to a diet or control one’s temper.
From ancient times to the present, New Year customs have been connected with bidding farewell to the past and looking forward to a better future. Although the theme of the holiday has not altered much from one century to the next, the date of the celebration has been changed many times. The old Roman calendar contained only ten months, and New Year’s Day was March 1. In 46 BC Julius Caesar introduced an improved calendar containing two additional months, January and February. January was named for the Roman god Janus, whose name comes from the Roman word for door. Like a door, Janus looks both ways; he is usually depicted with two faces, one looking backward and the other forward. The Julian calendar was revised in 1582 by Pope Gregory 13. The Gregorian calendar is the one in use today.
To Americans the closing of the calendar year and the opening of another is a serious, yet happy occasion. They review the past with nostalgia. They judge themselves and promise to improve. And they look forward to a new beginning with renewed hope.
7. American Food
The popular view outside the USA that Americans survive on cheeseburgers, Cokes and French fries is as accurate as the American popular view that the British live on tea and fish ’n’ chips, the French on red wine and garlic, and the Japanese on seaweed.
America has got two strong advantages when it comes to food. The first is that, as the leading agricultural nation, the country has always been well supplied with fresh meats, fruits and vegetables in great variety at relatively low prices. This is one reason why steak or beef roast is probably the most “ typical” American food. But good Southern- fried chicken also should be mentioned as well as hickory- smoked or sugar-curved hams, turkey, fresh lobster, and other seafood such as crabs or clams.
Such items as fresh grapefruit, oranges, lemons, melons, cherries, peaches, broccoli , iceberg lettuce ,avocados do not have to be imported. That’s why fruit dishes and salads are so common. Family vegetable gardens have been very popular , both as a hobby and as a way to save money , from the days when most Americans were farmers. They also help to keep fresh food on the table.
The second advantage America has enjoyed is that immigrants have brought with them , and continue to bring , the traditional foods of their countries and cultures. The variety of foods and styles is simply amazing.
There are four trends in America which have continued over a decade , and seem to be continuing. First , there has been a notable increase in the number of reasonably priced restaurants which offer speciality foods. Secondly , growing numbers of Americans are more regularly going out to eat in restaurants because they aren’t too expensive. Another reason is that many American women today do not feel that their lives are best spent in the kitchen. They would rather pay a professional chef and also enjoy a good meal.
A third long – term trend is that as a rest of nationwide health campaigns, Americans in general are eating a much lighter diet. Cereals , grain foods , fruits and vegetables , fish and salads are emphasized instead of heavy and sweet foods.
Finally , there is that ongoing international trend to “ fast food “ chains which sell pizza , hamburgers , Mexican foods , chicken salads , sandwiches , seafood , various ice creams. So – called American “ fast food “ has become , like so many other aspects of American culture , just another part of the normal landscape. To note , for example , that Hong Kong has Pizza Hut’s largest outlet and McDonald’s busiest , or that Kentucky Fried Chicken found a home in Japan over two decades ago and now has some 900 outlets is , at least for younger generations , not remarkable. What is new is that foreign visitors to the USA are sometimes surprised to see the familiar things they have at home: “ Oh , the Americans have KFC too!” Many young , middle – aged , elderly people , both rich and poor , continue to buy and eat fast foods.
Read the text and choose the best variant
1 What is the reason why steak or roast beef is the most “ typical” American food?
a) Americans are great beef eaters
b) Meats, fruits, vegetables are relatively cheap
c) The country has always been well provided with different foods at reasonable prices
a) The country is the fourth largest nation in the world
b) Different national traditions have been mixed since the country was explored
c) People who come to the USA bring national foods
a) They are piled up with work
b) Eating out is far more convenient and cheap
c) They dislike the idea of spending time in the kitchen
a) Nowadays we live in globalised world
b) There are a lot of Americans living in different countries who have brought the tradition with them
c) It’s fasionable
a) It saves time and money
b) A lot of people consider it to be delicious
c) Some people are addicted to fast food
American Dinner Manners
Every land has its own peculiar dinner manners, and the USA is no exception. Americans feel that the first rule of being a courteous guest is to be prompt. If a person is invited to dinner at six – thirty , the hostess expects him to be there at six- thirty or not more than a few minutes after. Because she usually does her own cooking, she times the meal so that the hot rolls, coffee and meat will be at their best at the time she asks the guests to come. When the guest can’t come on time, he calls his host or hostess on the telephone, gives the reason, and tells at what time he thinks he can come.
When the guests sit down at a dinner table, it is customary for the men to help the ladies by pushing their chairs under them. The European keeps the knife in the right hand, the fork in the left. He uses both hands in eating. The American, on the contrary, may use just one hand when possible , and keep the other one on his lap. He constantly changes his fork to the left hand when he has to cut his meat. Between bites he lays his fork on his plate while drinking his coffee or buttering his bread.
Since Americans lay their silverware down a great deal during the meal, certain customs have developed. It is not considered good manners to leave a spoon in a soup bowl or coffee cup or any other dish. It is put where it will lie flat ( on the saucer, on the service plate, etc.) By doing this, one is less likely to knock the silverware onto the floor or spill the food. Americans don’t use silverware for eating bread. They hold it in their fingers, usually breaking it first. Other things that Americans eat with their fingers are : corn on the cob, celery, radishes and olives.
If for any reason a guest has to leave the table during a meal, he always asks his hostess,” Will you please excuse me for a minute.”
After dinner, the guests usually stay for two or three hours, but the thoughtfull person is careful not to overstay. The host and hostess may ask him or her to stay longer in order to be polite, but most dinner parties break up about eleven o’ clock. Neither men nor women smoke at table.
As the guests leave, it is the custom to thank the hostess for a very pleasant evening. One may say anything that truly expresses his or her appreciation. Common expressions are : “Good-bye. It’s been an enjoyable evening.”
If one stays overnight, or in case of a weekend visit, it is customary in the USA to send a thank- you note. It is often called a “ bread – and –butter letter”. Quite often people later send a small gift such as a box of candy or some flowers as a sign of their appreciation. Flowers and a bottle of good wine is always welcome in any American home whenever you come for a visit.
After you have read the text, choose the best possible answer:
1 Americans feel the first rule to be a courteous guest is to
2 The order of using numerous forks, knives and spoons is simple
3 It is not considered good manners to
4 For eating bread Americans
5 When Americans eat soup they use
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