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Fill in the space with the best word from the list below.
Captured, seceded, cemetery, glory, spectacular, survived, ammunition, bound to
Match two parts to make a correct sentence
A to his mother about the battles.
B by Colonel Chamberlain’s words.
C dying on the battle.
D in enemy armies.
E made him join the northern army.
F bayonets to charge down the hill.
G camp opposite each other outside Gettysburg.
H what regiment Jed joined.
3 American People – “A Nation of Nations”
Read the texts carefully. Match the texts with the titles. One is extra.
A American people
B The British
C Hispanic - Americans
D African - Americans
E Immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe
F Immigrants from Northern and Western Europe
G The New England Yankee
H Native Americans
4 “The Melting Pot “
The USA is a land of immigrants. Between 1815 and 1914, the world witnessed the greatest peaceful migration in its history: 35 million people, mostly Europeans, left their homelands to start new lives in America. Why did these people risk everything by leaving their homes and families to see what the New World had to offer? How had the Old World let them down? There are both push and pull factors which we should consider.
First, what forced emigrants to make the momentous decision to leave? One major cause of the exodus among European peasants was the rise in population which in turn led to land hunger. Another was politics. Nationalism saw increased taxation and the growth of armies, and many young men fled eastern Europe to avoid being conscripted. Also, the failure of the liberal revolutions in Europe caused the departure of hundreds of thousands of refugees.
Physical hunger provided another pressing reason. Between 1845 and 1848 , the terrible potato famine in Ireland ended in the deaths of one million Irish people and the emigration of a further million who wished to escape starvation. Following the collapse of the economy of southern Italy in the 1860’s, hundreds of thousands decided to start afresh in America.
Religion also encouraged millions to leave the Old World. We should remember that the Pilgrim Fathers had wished to escape the ungodliness of England, while the Russian Jews of the last century sought to escape persecution and death in their native land.
In short, people chose to live their homes for social, economic and religious reasons. As a result, by 1890 among a total population of 63 million, there were more than nine million foreign- born Americans.
But what were the attractions? First of all, there was the promise of land which was so scarce in Europe. Next , factories were calling out for labor, and pay and conditions were much better than back home. Men were needed to open up the West and build the long railroads, and settlers were needed to populate new towns and develop commerce. There was the space for religious communities to practice their faith and comparative isolation.
This immigration meant that by around the 1850’s Americans of non- English extraction had started to outnumber those of English extraction. As we know, there were losers. To start with, there were those unwilling immigrants, the slaves who had been used as a source of cheap labour for the tobacco plantations of the South. Nor should we forget the equally awful fate of the American Indians. By 1860 there were 27 million free whites, 4 million slaves and a mere 488 000 free blacks.
Nowadays, the USA is still seen by millions as the Promised Land. Gone are the days when you could buy US citizenship for one dollar. Yet , even though entry is strictly limited, refugees continue to find freedom and people from poorer countries a better way of life. As always, it remains a magnet to the ambitious and the energetic who are ready to commit themselves to the land that gives them a second chance.
Choose the appropriate answers to these questions :
A The search for religious freedom
B The search for adventure
C Avoidance of military service
A There was no shortage of land
B Of peace
C The population had gone down
D There were too many of them
B A healthy life
C Availability of land
D Business opportunities
A A third
B An eight
C A half
D A quarter
A Sadder than that of the slaves
B The saddest tale of all
C Not as sad as that of the slaves
D As sad as that of the slaves
5 American character
Match the headings with the paragraphs
A The land of diversity
B The American dream
C “ Try it – you ‘ll like it”
D Typical American behaviour
E Where the car is king
F Rich and poor
G The American character
Read the text and choose from the sentences A – G the one which fits each gap 1 – 6.
There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.
A The desire to make a fresh start in a new place is still noticeable throughout the nation.
B Most are friendly, kind – hearted, eager to help visitors and immigrants.
C All these familiar sayings reflect the American obsession with promptness and efficiency.
D Americans admire what is practical, fast, efficient and new.
E They are direct and assertive.
F Americans are often accused of being materialistic, of valuing wealth and possessions above all else.
G However, Americans have moved in the opposite direction.
Watcting Americans in action, foreigners sometimes see behaviour that seems rude or just plain silly. Among them are the following traits.
Almost every American wears a watch, and, in nearly every room in an American home, there’s a clock.”Be on time.” “Don’t waste time.” “Time is money.”” Time waits for no one.” 1 ________________________ Students displease their teachers and employees displease their bosses when they arrive late. This desire to get the most out of every minute often makes Americans impatient when they have to wait. It also makes it difficult for Americans to relax.
The desire to save time and do work more quickly and easily leads them to buy many kinds of machines – from office equipment such as calculators, photocopy machines, and computers to dozens of home and personal appliances, such as microwave ovens.
After visiting the U.S. in the 1830s, the French historian Alexis de Tocqueville wrote, “I know of no country…. Where the love of money has taken stronger hold…”2____________________ Money us valued both as a symbol of success and also for a more obvious reason- its purchasing power. Purchases are made in order to “keep up with the Joneses,” to show friends that one can afford a bigger house or a better car.
Also, advertising encourages people to keep buying things far beyond what they need. In the 19 th century, the American author Henry David Thoreau advised his countrymen ,”Simplify your needs!”3_______________________ Now, just as Thoreau predicted, many find that their possessions own them. They must work hard to earn enough money to buy and maintain the many possessions they consider necessities.
Americans believe that” honesty is the best policy”.4_______________________
They ask for what they want. Children often argue with their parents and citizens express opposition to actions of the government. If the soup is cold or the meat is tough, the diner can complain to the waiter. If a teacher is wrong or confusing, a student may say so. If the boss makes a mistake, an employee may politely point it out.
The extremely competitive nature of Americans is often criticized. Of course, competition isn’t always bad. But the desire to get ahead of others sometimes causes people to do things that are unkind and even dishonest.
5____________________________Sometimes they cannot understand cultures that prefer more traditional, leisurely ways of doing things. People from other cultures, on the other hand, may dislike the practical, hectic American life style.
Despite these traits, which many foreigners may view as faults, Americans are usually considered very likable.6___________________________ In this nation of immigrants, the foreigner does not remain an outsider for long.
Think of the word which fits the sentence in the best possible way. Insert missing words.
The most important characteristic of the U.S.A. can be stated in one word: 1)______. Most Americans take pride in the great 2)_____ found in the country’s geography and population. Covering 9.590.000 square kilometers, the U.S. is the fourth 3)_____ nation in the world . Within this 4)_____ country are tall mountains and flat fields, deserts and tropical regions, prairies and forests. The climate, too, covers all 5)_____. In southern Florida, visitors come to swim and 6)_____ in December. In northern Alaska, winter temperatures may 7)_____ to -24 C. With more than 275 million people, the U.S.A. is the third largest nation in 8)_____ after China and India. About 90% of the people now 9)_____ in the U.S. were born there. Some newcomers to the U.S.A. may be surprised by the varieties of skin colour they see, but Americans take it for 10)_____. Most Americans believe in the ideals of equality and 11)_____ respect. Regional variations also add diversity to the 12)_____ character. Travel around the country and you’ll notice 13)_____ in language, cooking styles, recreation and even character.
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